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Deep Draft Navigation

Welcome

Table of Contents

Part I: Introduction

Part II: The Analysis

Appendices

References and Related Links: Deep Draft Navigation

Deep Draft Navigation

References and Related Links: Deep Draft Navigation

Chapter 1 References: Introduction  
 
 
Links
     
Waterborne Commerce Statistics(PDF Size: 161Kb)
Deep Draft Navigation Planning Center of Expertise:
Final Waterborne Commerce Statistics for Calendar Year 2007
 
Footnotes
     
Footnote 1:  New Navigation Channel Works
Footnote 2:  2008 Cruise Statistics (PDF Size: 161Kb)
 
Chapter 2 References: Corps Planning Process  
 
 
Key Concepts
     
  • Corps Planning Guidance is comprised of:
    • Principles & Guidelines (P&G) (Executive Order 11747)
    • Planning Guidance Notebook (PGN) (ER 1005-2-100)
    • Engineering Regulations (ER)
    • Engineering Circulars (EC)
    • Engineering Memorandums (EM)
  • Consistency with the P&G and the PGN is a basic requirement in all studies and all supplemental guidance, including this manual.
  • Three main project authorities exist: congressionally authorized, Continuing Authorities Program (CAP) and Special Navigation Programs.
  • The 6-step planning process is: 1) Problems and Opportunities; 2) Inventory and Forecast; 3) Plan Formulation; 4) Evaluation; 5) Comparison; and 6) Plan Selection. This process should be combined with risk-informed decision making.
  • Risk Analysis has three main parts: communication, assessment and management. The economist typically most contributes to the assessment piece.
  • The alternative plan with the greatest net National Economic Development benefit consistent with protecting the environment, which is also known as the NED plan, is to be recommended unless there is an overriding reason for selecting another plan.
  • The planning delivery team is comprised of various experts. The economist should understand their own role and how it interacts with the other team members. Economists also play an important role in plan formulation.
  • Environmental considerations can modify the plan formulation and economic analysis. Additionally, the economist may an important role in environmental tasks.
Links
     
Principles & Guidelines(PDF Size: 236Kb)
Engineering after Feasibility Studies
Corps Risk Analysis Gateway
Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies: (PDF Size: 61Kb)
Planning Guidance Notebook (ER 1105-2-100)
Economic Guidance Memorandum (00-06, Addendum), Release of Deep Draft Vessel Cost Model. (PDF Size: 187Kb)
Engineering and Design -Engineering and Design for Civil Works Projects (ER 1110-2-1150)
Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies: (PDF Size: 3.57Mb)
Corps Risk Analysis Gateway:
Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies: (PDF Size: 3.57Mb)
Planning Guidance Notebook (ER 1105-2-100)
USACE Engineering Regulations
USACE Engineer Circulars
USACE Engineer Manuals
AAPA: American Association of Port Authorities You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
 
Chapter 3 References: NED Objective  
 
Key Concepts
     
  • Verification of the Federal Interest in a project is a prerequisite to the National Economic Development Plan (NED) plan implementation. The determination of Federal Interest in navigation projects requires identification of opportunities, constraints, public purpose and access, and the commerce served.
  • The single overarching objective of the Federal Government is to contribute to National Economic Development (NED) consistent with protecting the Nation’s environment.
  • Projects are increasing becoming multi-objective and may have NED and NER components that must consider the four accounts as well: NED, environmental quality (EQ), Other Social Effects (OSE), and regional economic development (RED).
  • Net NED benefits are contributions to National Economic Development that increase the value of the national output of goods and services.
  • The NED plan for a project is the plan that reasonably maximizes net NED benefits. The relationship between costs and benefits, discounted to account for the time value of money at a constant price level and expressed in average annual values or equivalent annual, determines the most efficient plan.
  • Benefits of deep draft navigation projects are derived mainly from transportation cost savings, improved safety or higher net revenues.
  • Several analyses are important: risk, systems, multiport and incremental.
  • Communicate and consult with all stakeholders to ensure the best quality report, risk communication and more.
  • Recognize existing vessel behavior and behavioral changes under various alternatives.
Links
     
Economic & Environmental Principals & Guidelines For Water & Related Land Resources Implementation Studies (PDF Size: 345Kb)
Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center (WCSC)
Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies: (PDF Size: 200Kb)
USACE Navigation Data Center/Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center
Engineer Circular, Water Resource Policies and Authorities, Incorporating Sea Level Change Considerations in Civil Works Programs (EC 1165-2-211) (PDF Size: 345Kb)
 
Footnotes
     
Footnote 3:  Mitigation may actually start prior to construction (or credited) and could also go beyond the construction period depending on the mitigation measure.
 
Chapter 4 References: Port & Vessel Basics  
 
 
Key Concepts
     
  • Hinterlands are inland trade regions served by a port. Cargo hinterlands are broken down by specific commodity traffic. Port hinterlands can broadly be described as captive or competitive.
  • Most ports have the same general features and support services such as channels, anchorages, basins, vessel repair, tugs, etc.
  • Each vessel has its own unique characteristics and vary in year built, length overall, beam width, draft, weight, capacity, and more. The standard vessel movements are squat, yaw, heave, pitch, roll, surge, and sway.
  • Standard types of deep draft vessels are breakbulk, bulk carrier, containerships, lighter abroad, RO/RO, tankers, military, and special carriers and passenger vessels.
  • The Lloyd’s Register has several vessel categories that are dependent on deadweight tons and they range from Minibulkers to Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs).
Links
     
EM 1110-2-1613
Published Corps Vessel Operating Costs
Hydraulic Design of Deep Draft Navigation Projects (EM 1110-2-1613), Chapter 4 Ship Operations(PDF Size: 123Kb)
USACE Economic Guidance Memoranda
Container Handbook, Container, Carrying Vessels You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
 
Footnotes
     
Footnote 4:  Thompson, Jonathan. “MS Emma Maersk: Santa’s Giant Helper Arrives” The Independent (UK) Posted 5 November 2006 You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
Footnote 5:  Global Security You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.,  and  Maritime Connector You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
Footnote 6:  "Ro/Ro Up at Port of Jacksonville" Posted 9 April 2009 You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
Footnote 7:  United States Maritime Administration, Office of Data and Economic Analysis (July 2006) pp: 3, 5, 6
Footnote 8:  USACE Education: Navigation: Accessed July 2009
Footnote 9:  Lloyd's Register You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
 
Chapter 5 References: Port & Vessel Operations  
 
 
Key Concepts
     
  • Ports have a standard procedure for vessels entering and exiting that usually involves local pilots moving ships about a given port.
  • Underkeel clearance is the distance below the ship to the channel floor and a certain amount is required depending on conditions to allow safer vessel passage.
  • Port facilities have the ability to store and process various types of cargoes. They also may have various regulations, and abilities to work depending on conditions. Each port is unique in its capabilities.
  • Vessels can use non-structural measures such as tide-riding behavior, light loading, and lightering to overcome certain restrictions.
  • Port and vessel deployment patterns that account for the calling vessel distribution at the port are an essential element of the economic analysis. Certain vessel or cargo types have a more predictable pattern
  • Navigation-related constraints such as beam, vessel length, airspace, traffic, landside and others affect which vessels will call at a port and how they will behave.
  • The Panama and Suez Canal are important transit points and impact the vessel dimensions that traverse the canals and how the shippers plan trade routes.
Links
     
HarborSym
"Implications of Panama Canal Expansion to U.S. Ports and Coastal Navigation Economic Analysis"
http://library.water-resources.us/pubsearchT.cfm
EM 1110-2-1613
HarborSym
The Implications of Panama Canal Expansion to U.S. Ports and Coastal Navigation Economic Analysis(PDF Size: 145Kb)
Panama Canal Authority You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
Suez Canal Authority
 
Footnotes
     
Footnote 10:  Scantling draft is the maximum draft at which a vessel complies with the governing strength requirements. Usually used when the scantling draft is less than the geometrical draft corresponding to the freeboard calculated according to the Load Line Convention
Footnote 11:  Adapted from the Maritime Administration Handbook
Footnote 12:  National Research Council (NRC), Oil Spills From Tank Vessel Lightering, 19
Footnote 13:  Merchant Fleet Forecast of Vessel in U.S. - Foreign Trade, by Temple, Barker and Sloane, Inc. U.S. Department Of Commerce, Maritime Administration, Washington, EC, May 1978
Footnote 14:  "Risks lie ahead following stronger trade in 2006" WTO Press Release 2007 You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
Footnote 15:  Home port domiciled fleets are vessels that call primarily at the study port such as fishing fleet vessels or short cruise deployments.
Footnote 16:  Bulk sector vessels may be sold (traded) frequently during the life of the vessel, often with a name change.. Consequently, the same vessels may be calling in particular bulk sector trades (although with different names). Most of the vessel databases trace former names using the same unique hull number, so the identity of vessels can be tracked even while the names that appear on pilots’ logs, etc., are different.
Footnote 17:  Container vessels will discharge cargo at terminals adjacent to the Canal entrances. Bulk vessels will load for the maximum canal transit draft, about 38.65 feet, regardless of the U.S. port depth.
Footnote 18:  Suez Canal Authority, 2009, Accessed July 2009
 
Chapter 6 References: Overview of the Economic Analysis  
 
 
Key Concepts
     
  • The planning process is iterative and broken down into the following steps: data collection, economic setting and study area, commodity flows and forecasts, vessel fleet composition and forecasts, determine transportation costs, with-project condition, existing and without-project conditions, and calculate NED benefits and costs.
  • Multiport Analysis is recommended at some scale for all studies.
  • HarborSym is a Corps model that can assist in doing deep draft economics analysis.
  • Risk analysis should recognize the interactions among the various navigation elements.
Links
     
Corps Risk Analysis Gateway
USACE Planning Models: Model Certification | Software
HarborSym
HarborSym You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
 
Chapter 7 References: Data Collection  
 
 
Key Concepts
     
  • Determining hinterlands are critical in a multiport analysis to determine if they are competitive or captive.
  • The economist must decide the appropriate level of effort to expend compiling all relevant origin-to-destination costs. Time should be allocated to the most important cost components and variables affecting differences in origin-to-destination costs.
  • Cargo hinterlands can be broadly classified as captive or competitive (and sometimes as marginal). Port hinterlands will vary by such things as commodity, trade routes, geography and domestic transportation routes. Hinterlands may change through seasonal or cyclical fluctuations in world trade.
  • Multiport analysis should only focus on competitive hinterlands where overlapping port hinterlands are affected by with-project conditions.
  • Two basic approaches to identifying cargo hinterlands are to:
    • Trace overland movements to or from the port (and competing ports if appropriate).
    • Estimate overland transportation costs by the modes used and use the simplifying assumption that lowest cost determines port routing.
Links
     
EM 1110-2-1613
Deep Draft Navigation Planning Center of Expertise
NOAA Tides & Currents
NOAA NOS Tides Online
Hydraulic Design of Deep Draft Navigation Projects (EM 1110-2-1613)
Deep Draft Navigation Planning Center of Expertise
USACE Navigation Data Center/Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center-Mission
U.S. Bureau of Census
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
FedStats
Economic Research Service, USDA
Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce
USACE Navigation Data Center
National Ocean Service, U.S. Department of Commerce
USACE Corps Maps
USACE Navigation Data Center
Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center: this is part of the Navigation Data Center
Navigation Economic Technologies (NETS) models and processes
U.S. Customs and Border Patrol
Lloyd's You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
http://www.lrfairplay.com/, Lloyd's Fairplay
Clarkson You are leaving a Federal Government web site. Click this icon for more information.
Vanderbilt University/List of Frequently Used Sites Related to U.S. Government Information
HIS Global Insight
IHS Fairplay, Sea-web
IHS Fairplay
ISR Internet Ships Register
Clarkson Research Service Online
 
Chapter 8 References: Economic Study Area  
 
 
Key Concepts
     
  • Find good sources of information about the economic area, port, fleet, the commodities being moved by the fleet and the economics of the study area. This information should be summarized and become the basis of analysis and establishing the existing condition.
  • Empirical and objective data is best; however, interviews and shared information can also be useful but must be objectively evaluated for any bias
  • Fleet information should be found on the local, regional and world scale for comparison later on.
  • Vessel deployments and routes are important along with collecting information about alternative inland routes.
  • Information on tides and weather will also play an important role later on.
  • Consider information to describe competing ports for the multiport treatment
 
Chapter 9 References: Commodity Flows & Forecast  
 

 

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